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How does a Copier / Printer Work ?

Ever wondered how the copy or Print process works ? Its actually quite simple and involves only 5 steps.

  1. Charging: cylindrical drum is electrostatically charged by a high voltage wire called a corona wire or a charge roller. The drum has a coating of a photoconductive material. A photoconductor is a semiconductor that becomes conductive when exposed to light.
  2. Exposure: A bright lamp illuminates the original document, and the white areas of the original document reflect the light onto the surface of the photoconductive drum. The areas of the drum that are exposed to light become conductive and therefore discharge to the ground. The area of the drum not exposed to light (those areas that correspond to black portions of the original document) remain negatively charged. What remains is the electrostatic latent image.
  3. Developing: The toner is positively charged. When it is applied to the drum to develop the image, it is attracted and sticks to the areas that are negatively charged (black areas), just as paper sticks to a balloon with a static charge.
  4. Transfer: The resulting toner image on the surface of the drum is transferred from the drum onto a piece of paper with a higher negative charge than the drum.
  5. Fusing: The toner is melted and bonded to the paper by heat and pressure rollers.

This example is of a negatively charged drum and paper, and positively charged toner as is common in today's digital copiers.

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